In brief, the author said that the three types are: Type A or the insufficiency to meet the basic needs, Type B or relative poverty, and Type C or that which has psychological underpinnings. Measurement can lso be relative or absolute but the most common types uses literacy or level of education, gross domestic product, calorie intake, purchasing power or income. There are also a number of causes most of which we have discussed under our earlier posts on Poverty in the Bicol Region which can be accessed here (Part 1, Part 2, & Part 3).
A portion of P.A.P. Blog’s discussion is as follows:
1. Types of poverty
Poverty has many dimensions, monetary and non-monetary, absolute and relative, material and psychological. One can distinguish between three types of poverty:
Poverty “type A”. Insufficient resources to meet basic needs, such as nutrition, shelter, health and education. This insufficiency can result in the following material symptoms of poverty:
- Low income or consumption levels
- Low average calorie intake levels
- High infant mortality rates
- Low life expectancy rates
- High illiteracy rates
- High unemployment
- Widespread diseases, especially curable ones
- Famine or high risk of famine
- High rates of economic migration.
Poverty “type B”. Apart from these absolute monetary and non-monetary kinds of poverty, there is also relative poverty: people compare themselves to others, mostly others who are relatively close by and better off. This inequality of income or consumption can result in the following psychological symptoms of poverty:
- Feelings of loss of dignity
- Low self-esteem
- Feelings of relative powerlessness
- Feelings of lack of participation in culture and politics
- Feelings of discrimination and resentment.
Poverty “type C”. A third kind of poverty is vulnerability, the actual or perceived risk of future poverty. This vulnerability can result in the following psychological symptoms of poverty:
- Fear, stress
- Feelings of insecurity
- Irrational precaution measures
- Family planning decisions
The rest of the entry can be accessed here.