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Archive for the ‘History’ Category

ni Carlos A. Aréjola

GÎPAW BIKOL! Iyan an pigpapadarang text kan parasurat na si Jun Balde sa Kabulig Bikol1 kun igwang magayon na bareta, arog baga kun igwang Bikolano na nanggana sa kontes o igwa nin bagong libro na nagluwas. Iyan man an pigpapaabot ko sa saindo ngunyan na aldaw!

Gipaw Bikol! Has the corpus of Bikol literature expanded or developed? Is publishing better? Is Bikol literature being read and taught in schools and elsewhere? Are we better off today?2

Mga kahaputan ini kan taon 2000 sa Legaspi kan ginibo duman si enot na Pagsurat Bikolnon. Siring kan pagtiripon tang ini ngunyan, an pagtiripon na nasambit saro man na kumperensiya nin mga parasurat, paratukdo asin mga indibidwal na tawo na nagmamawot na igwang mga maginibohan sa pagpatalubo kan Literaturang Bikolnon.

An dating mga kahaputan tama na hinapot giraray kan taong 2004, sa ikaduwang kumperensiya na inapod nang Pagsurat Bikolnon: An Ikaduwang Kabtang. Siring kan naenot na paghaharampangaj kan mga parasurat asin paratukdo kan taojg 2000, ginibo an Pagsurat Bikolnon 2 sa Aquainas University sa Legazpi, padagos na pigpadalagan kan Center for Cultere and the Arts na pinapamayuhan kaidto ni Prop. Jazmin Llana na iyo man an nagtindog na direktor kan kumperensiya. Sa saiyang situationer3 na pigbasa duman, bilmg na pigsimbagan ni Prop. Paz Verdades Santos kan DLSU an mga kahapotan na nasambit.

Continue Reading here>>>

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In Berlin, a 41-year old man landed in front pages after beheading Adolf Hitler … no, not the real one but a wax replica. The “decapitation” happened at Madame Tussaud’s museum in Berlin last Saturday when the unidentified man broke in and beheaded Hitler in protest against the Nazi dictator.

But Hitler is lucky. Wax replica lang an pinutulan. Sa Legazpi, igwa ki sarong monumento na makukua sa hampangan kan Legazpi Postal Office — an headless monument.

The headless monument was allegedly built by Don Buenaventura de Erquiaga, a Spanish philanthropist who founded Legazpi College (now Aquinas Univerity), in memory of the Bicolanos who suffered atrocities during the Japanese occupation.
Dati, an headless monument makukua sa may piyer kaya lang dahil ginigibo lang gakudan ki balaybayan an monumento para sa mga linabahan, inilipat an monumento sa ampangan kan postal office.

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Sitting president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo is now maintaining a very active presence in the Bicol Region. Does this show that the “turugbong na tubo” is already at work in exchange for the election of the presidential son, Datu, as a District Representative of the First District of Camarines Sur? And if so, will this be beneficial to the Bicolanos?

The idea of “turugbong na tubo” was earlier attributed to Camarines Sur’s Luis Villafuerte. It was known as surumpay na tubo or literally translated as “pipes or pipelines linked or connected with each other”. Prior to the 1980 elections, Villafuerte proposed that if somebody close to the Malacanang would be elected to the Naga City Hall, the mejoras or largesse will easily flow to the local government. To prove his point, he even staked his name to ensure the election of a Del Castillo (related to the mother of ex-Governor and Congressman Al Francis Bichara). He was not shamed, of course, and for this reason, he revived the idea in relation to the 2007 elections. Not contented on switching to and chairing Arroyo’s political party, Villafuerte even endorsed and fully supported the candidacy of Datu. In addition, he also supported (albeit not open) GMA’s favorite student and economic adviser, Joey Salceda in the latter’s bid for governorship in Albay, and rallied the support of other political stalwarts in the region like Edcel Lagman and Jose Solis.

(more…)

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It’s hard to recall the past when you are not a part of it. For this reason, I am sharing a listing of the past governors of Albay to aide future researchers and maybe compensate for the lack of initiative of our Bicolano teachers and professors who prefer to teach their students on the facts and profiles of the different states of the US rather than the facts and profiles of the Bicol provinces where they and their students live.

1900 Gen. William Kobbe
1901 Gen. James M. Bell
1902 – 1904 Gen. Arlington Betts
1904 – 1906 Ramon Santos
1906 – 1908 Charles H. Reynolds
1908 – 1912 Domingo Samson
1913 – 1916 Leoncio Duran Imperial

(more…)

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Natapos na su PPSA pero su research ko manungod sa mga Imperial sa Albay asin man sa nakaagi kan Bikol padagos pa giraray. And as I do so, I accidentally stumbled on this cute presentation of the history of the town of Irosin in Sorsogon. The presentation is in Bikol verse with an English translation. It is composed of 306 stanzas plus an additional seven for the epilogue. The whole presentation can be found here but i took the opportunity to present some selected stanzas below.

HISTORYA NIN BANUAAN
By
Sabiniano Gacias and Elias Cuadro

1 – Magna agui-agui can banuaan nin Irosin, Sorsogon,
magpoon na maguin sitio, barrio asin banuaan;
na nasasacupan can banuaan nin Bulusan,
caidto,provincia pa nin Albay…

2 – Sa tabang nin lagnit na linalaoman,
manoltolan logod an ipagsasaysay;
magpoon caidto asin sagcod gnonian,
magna agui-agui caining banuaan.

3 – Daculang pasabong na ini guibohon,
guiromdomon bilang, nag-aguing panahon;
con sacale baga, guibo bacong toltol,
hipnoan con sucat, iyong linalom.

4 – Tunay na pagmauot na ini mahaman,
na minsan mamogtac sa capagnahasan;
ogale na ini nin may catuyuhan,
tuyaon na sana con iguang caratan.

5 – Asin sa guiraray, haman sa paglaom,
an diit na obra na ipagboboyboy;
an catotoohan, iyong sasabihon,
talae nin marhay, sacong dadagoson.

xxx

17 – Enot na gninaran caini na sitio,
Gin-ay an pag-apod nin gabos na tauo;
na an cahologan ipapasabot co,
na pacatalae ta iyo iniho.

xxx

20 – An nacacasacop can sinabing sitio,
an banuang Bulusan, panahon na idto;
can mahaloy-haloy, ginibo nang barrio,
huli ta dacol na, nag-eroc na tauo.

xxx

30 – Asin ta linagda na an Emancipacion,
barrio mabulag na sa pagcaoripon;
sa banuang Bulusan, haman sa paglaom,
saro nang banuaan, gnaning matoninong.

xxx

35 – An sinabing barrio, liniuat an gnaran,
San Miguel na naman, hinale an Gin-ay;
An gnaran can patron, hinuad na lamang,
Ta iyong pagboot can bagong Capitan.

xxx

41 – Don Juan Gallarda, sominonod naman,
ochenta y cinco, ochenta y seis, iyo an Capitan;
maboot na tauo con sa pagsasaysay,
y con may sala ca, siempre padosahan.

xxx

44 – Alagad ta an olay, magna orosipon,
magna magurang ta, enot na panahon;
an Irosin daa, gnaran itinoltol,
tagnaning an salog, pagtopas sogpoon.

45 – Gnaning maontoc na an guibong pagtabas,
pag-irog can salog, sa banua pagrompag;
segun supersticion, encantong balignag,
maraot na pagtubod, ay sosogon nangad.

46 – Con caya guinibo, iboniag Irosin,
gnaranan an banua, apodon nin siring;
ta sogno-sognoon an hoyog na quiling,
pag-iros can tubig nin banuang Irosin.

47 – Guinibong totoo,liniuat an ngaran,
embes na San Miguel, Irosin na naman;
ta sisogno-sogno an guibong caratan,
tagnaning masolpo asin icaoyam.

xxx

52 – Sa siring na siring, Irosin an apod,
magpoon pa caidto asin gnonian sagcod;
an gobierno niato, an guinibo logod,
guibohon official an gnaran padagos.

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Poverty may be relative. As I told my colleague sometime ago, the Bicol Region may be economically depressed. Infrastructure-wise, it may remain uncomparable to Metro Manila, or least Cebu, or Davao. But if you consider the satisfaction of the Bicolanos with their way of life, the Metro Manilans may even be far below.

In several instances, I noted in my socio-political surveys that the Bicolanos are happy with the way they live their life. From time to time, though, they would air their disdain for some local politicians, or agonize for lack of money. Even then, gusto pa giraray ninda an buhay-Bicolano. This is as opposed to a great number of respondents in Central Luzon or, in Southern Tagalog Region who claimed that given the opportunity, they would rather go to Manila or someplace else.

This, despite the fact that Regions 3 and 4 are economically advanced compared with Region 5? Why?

History has a great statement to tell. One, during the Spanish colonization, Franciscan missionaries were assigned to the Bicol Region. These missionaries are known to have a vow of poverty so it is most likely that they are the ones who influenced more on the ability of the locales to accept what they are and endure some forms of pain and suffering (i.e., rapado kan mga kalamidad arog kan putok kan bulkan asin mga bagyo).

Second, these missionaries did not clearly advocate nor even aid in the accumulation of wealth as opposed to the Dominicans who, intentionally or otherwise, became instruments in the accumulation of large tracts of lands. When ownership of these lands were given to a selected few, an economic change is thereby effected. Kun maurag an administrador kan mga daga lalong minayaman (in general terms) an lugar. Halimbawa, dahil consolidated an kontrol kan daga sa nagkakapirang kamot, madali an pagdesisyon kun ano an puwedeng gibuhon digdi. Puwedeng i-implementar an industrial agriculture, puwedeng i-convert sa housing, etc., etc. Arog sa Hacienda Luisita sa Tarlac. Siring man, mas may poder na magdikta an tagsadiri kan presyo sa mga produkto niya dahil an kawaran o presensiya kan produksiyon niya magkakaigwa ki dakulang impact sa barakalan sa mercado. Ehemplo digdi an sugarcane industry sa Negros.
Pero kun watak-watak an mga tagsadiri kan mga daga, kanya-kanyang kayod an mga ini. Bahala an mga tagsadiri kun ano an gusto nindang itanom, paanong klase ninda itatanom, asin nuarin ninda gustong itanom. The problem with this, magiging market dependent an mga paraomang yan. Dahil kulang ang poder para madiktaran an presyo kan mga produkto nagluluwas na garo lang sinda mga layag– tagasunod lang kun saen paduman an duros. Ini ngonyan an nangyayari sa mga Bicolano.

Siyempre, me negatibong epekto man an konsolidasyon asin limitadong kontrol kan mga daga. Aside from the lack of family-owned property, farmers have to beg the landowners to allow them to till the land. Ini an dahilan kun nata mas dakul man giraray an porsyento kan mga pobreng namamanwaan sa Region 3 & 4 kumpara sa Region 5. This situation, though, is being overshadowed by the fact na mas dakul an kwarta na nagdadalagan sa Central Luzon asin Southern Tagalog asin dahil dakul an nagdadalagan na kwarta, aktibo an ekonomiya. Halimbawa, dahil paid agricultural workers na an mga tawo, igwa sindang income na puwedeng magastos sa mga bagay-bagay arog kan bado, pagkaon asin maski an pagpapairahay kan saindang mga harong. (Dai kaya sinda puwedeng mag-absent dahil kakaltasan an mga sweldo ninda.) Siring man, nakakapag-crear na ki mga service-related occupations arog kan karpintero, barbero, etc. Masulpot na man an mga tindero, labandera, asin iba pa. Dahil makaskas an inaapod na monetary transfer, nagiging aktibo an ekonomiya, minadakula an mga buwis na naglalaog sa mga lokal na mga gobyerno, asin minadakul man an nagagastos para sa serbisyo-publiko.

Sa Bicol, dahil nakagapos an mga tawo sa kanya-kanyang oma, asin limitado lang an dalagan kan kwarta. Dahil siyempre sadit man an mga income, diit lang an minalaog sa kaban kan gobyerno. Thus, economically, minaluwas na talagang pobre an mga tawo.

Dahil sa konseptong ini nabilog an inaapod na self-rated poverty. In the Philippines, one of the institutions that conducts self-rated poverty surveys is the Social Weather Stations o SWS. Dai ninda hinihiling o hinahapot kun pira an income kan sarong indibidwal o kaya pamilya (as opposed to what the National Statistics Office or NSO is doing). An hapot kan SWS: Sa mga nakaaging bulan/aldaw, mas nagpobre ka ngonyan o mas nag-asenso ka? Kung baga, an “feeling” o “pagmati” an pinagbabasehan bako an income. Kung ini ngonyan an basehan, nagluluwas na comparatively lower an poverty rating kan mga Bicolano.

Paano ta ngonyan mapapatunayan na tama ini?

Igwa ki sarong Amerikanong psychologist an nagibo ki pag-aadal manungod sa mga pangangaipo kan tawo. An ngaran niya si Abraham Maslow asin an resulta kan pag-aadal niya inaapod na “Maslow’s hierarchy of needs”. An sabi ni Maslow igwa ki lebelo an mga pangangaipo kan mga tawo. Sa pinakaibaba iyo an inaapod na “Biological na Physiological Needs” kun saen kabilang an pagkaon, istaran, sex, sleep, etc. Sa itaas kaini iyo an “Safety Needs” then, ang “Belongingness and Love Needs”, followed by “Esteem Needs”, and on the top, the “Self Actualization Needs”.

If we are going to follow the needs categorization by Maslow puwedeng sabihon na lagpas na an mga Bikolano sa lowest level of needs. Maski kaya tuyo lang an isira o kaya gulay, maogma na an kadaklan lalo na su mga nag-eerok sa rural areas. Mala ta an tinutungan na manok, ordinaryo na lang sainda. May mga kararawan ngani na ipinag-aagad pa ninda ini nin dispensa dahil wara sindang sardinas.

But more than this, Bicolanos are attuned to the arts — singing, dancing, painting, sculpting — which the individuals who still craving for food and shelter cannot even afford. Gustong sabihon, lagpas na sa basic needs an mga Bicolano kaya an konsentrasyon na ninda sa inaapod ng “Arts” ni Plato, sarong Griyegong parasurat, na “occupation for the people of higher status”.

Kun sabagay, an sarong tawong gutom, dai makonsentrar sa pag-bayle pero nata ta igwa sa Bicol kan inaapod na “Mr & Mrs” o sa Rinconada, “Biasan”? Nata ta may pantomina? Baraylehan? O kaya nata ta maski pauno, igwa ki mga Bikolano pa man giraray na nagtitiripon para lang mag-arambugan asin mag-arambagan kan saindang mga komposisyon maging kanta man yan o rawit-dawit? Siring man, yaon man an mga parasurat (an notableng si Ben Santos para sa short stories and Novels), painter (arog kay Gus Albur na bistado sa bilog na kinaban), singer (arog kay Nora Aunor)? An mga artista niyato arog kay Eddie Garcia, Dina Bonnevie, Anjo Yllana, an komedyanteng si Wally, asin dakul pang iba. Puwede ta man siguro idagdag sa listahan an Sili King na si Bert Gonzales na apuwera sa pagiging graphic artist kan mga comics, saro man na designer ki mga jeep. Puwede pang maghalaba an listahan pero an pinakasimple na lang, maglalakaw-lakaw lang kita, mahihiling an mga ini sa mga videoke-han sa mga kanto, sa irinuman sa gilid-gilid, asin iba pang lugar. If these “occupations of the people of higher status” are being done by Bicolanos, puwedeng sabihon na mayaman an Bicol. Bako nga lang sa termino kan income.

On my first trip to Pandan, Catanduanes, I’ve seen a number of women drinking liquor. I was told it was a lambanog or a fermented sap of nipa. Astonished, I asked my mentor, Prof. Alex De Guzman about the scene. His response: Nag-eenjoy lang sinda and that is a common sight here everytime there is a gathering of women.

If the people can even have the time to drink and be happy, then poverty may just be pure economy-based or income-based calculations. Could it be?

Poverty in the Bicol Region Part 1 Poverty in the Bicol Region Part 2

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